Victorian newspaper proprietor,
publisher and entrepreneur
Fleet Street works
Lloyd owned or used a network of buildings in and off Salisbury Square for printing. The local authority tax record lists the following:
11 Salisbury Square
12 Salisbury Square
13 Salisbury Square
13.5 Salisbury Square
72 Fleet Street
80 Fleet Street
132 Fleet Street
2-3 Crown Court
5-8 Crown Court
14 Crown Court
8 Hanging Sword Alley
32 Whitefriar Street
38 Hutton Street
No Crown Court exists there now. A Farewell to Fleet Street describes it as "Crown Court, Salisbury Square" and says that it was the site of Hoe's first London office.
It may have been built over or renamed to avoid confusion with other courts of the same name. Lloyd's premises were no doubt ramshackle. The entire area is now taken up by the lumbering 1970s Fleetbank House, a government building for which embellishments in the “City bland” style are now being planned.
In addition to these work addresses, Lloyd took assignment of a lease on premises at Bow Bridge in 1859 that he used for printing, including a type foundry, and as a paper mill. He expanded the lease in 1874. The family trust continued to hold the lease until at least 1942. The property is now partly under the major road that connects the Blackwall Tunnel to the North Circular.
Lloyd bought an old mill in Sittingbourne in 1863 and transferred operations there in 1877. It continued to expand during Edward's lifetime and even more so under his sons' management (see Industrial Innovation) until, in 1912, it was the largest in the world. It was sold in 1937, closed in 2007 and demolished in 2010.
The Sittingbourne & Kemsley Light Railway has reinstated the narrow-guage track that the paper mill used for bringing cargoes from the dock to the mill.
A mural depicting scenes from the paper mill in earlier times has been painted on the wall leading to the railway.
The "Edward Lloyd" is a Ruston & Hornsby diesel engine built in 1961. It stands in for Ivor in Ivor the Engine, a popular children's television show, when it goes on tour.
“Lloyd’s Wharf” near Blackfriars Bridge
(probable date 1876)
Carting newsprint along Fleet Street
Lloyd was registered as a printer in the Middlesex Sessions Records in 1838 (Broad St and Cumberland Place Curtain Rd, an address that no longer exists), 1842 (High St Shoreditch) and 1843 (Salisbury Sq).
The publishing addresses he gave on the front covers of his publications from 1835 to 1843 range more widely, most often to Wych St and Broad St, but also Holywell Street, Curtain Road and Shoreditch, High St and No 231 (pictured). This house in Shoreditch and Water House (William Morris Gallery) are the only Lloyd properties that have survived.
Lloyd's whereabouts in his early days of publishing are only partly known. According to "anon", the family lived at 62 Broad Street in 1836, 44 Holywell Street in 1839 and 231 Shoreditch High Street in 1840. In 1841, the census recorded him as living with his brother Thomas in New Basinghall Street, Cripplegate. In the late 1840s/early 1850s, the publisher’s notice on Lloyd’s Weekly said that he was “of Forest Hill, Peckham, Surrey”. Some of Edward's addresses would have served as home, office and shop too. Most were in the over-crowded, often squalid, areas that encircled the City.
In 1843 Lloyd moved his business to 12 Salisbury Square. Although he never lived there himself as far as we know, it was used as a residence by his mother and his and Isabella's son Edward at the time of the 1851 census (he was then living in Ealing with Maria). Lloyd may well have stayed there on occasion after 1856, given the 6-mile commute from Walthamstow.
In 1856, Edward and Maria moved there to the Winns estate (for an early map, see Art Trail). Lloyd is believed to have bought it then. It was certainly owned outright when he died.
The Winns, or Water House, is now the William Morris Gallery, named after the distinguished son of the house’s previous tenant. Edward's name is on the blue plaque on the outside wall, but few visitors know who he was.
When the family moved there, the area was already changing from countryside to suburb, largely due to the arrival of the railway at Lea Bridge in 1840. Housing development started in 1850, when the commons were enclosed and the larger private roads made public. The railway reached Hoe Street in 1870. Clay Street was renamed Forest Road in 1886. The Lloyd family moved out in 1885.
After Edward's death, Maria moved back to Water House, probably with some of the children. Maria died in 1893 and the house was soon left vacant. All the children except Thomas, Florence and Percy were already married. Thomas was an invalid, and Florence and Percy both married in 1894.
Frank, who was a noted philanthropist, gave Water House to the people of Walthamstow in 1898, along with a dozen acres for use as a park and playing fields (now helped by the Friends of Lloyd Park). He also gave the parkland at his own property to the people of Croydon. Both Lloyd Parks are very popular local amenities.
The remaining 86 acres of the Winns estate were sold as one lot on 29 June 1898 to T C T Warner, the largest developer in Walthamstow. He paid £36,000 (£4.1m) – less than the auctioneer had hoped for but Lloyd's heirs were hardly short-changed.
Warner's houses were reputedly built to a higher standard than many in the area. They were marked "WE" and had imaginative design features. He was a Liberal grandee (from 1910 Sir Thomas, baronet) whose property company survived until the financial crisis of 2007. It went into administration in 2013.
In 1885, the Lloyd family moved to 17 Delahay Street in Westminster. The house was newly built, but had gone by 1917. Delahay Street was at the St James’s Park end of the complex of streets that was demolished to make way for the government building that houses the Treasury. The work was done in two phases finishing in 1908 and 1917.
In addition to these properties, Edward continued to own the Winns estate and Woodlands, a country retreat at Caterham in Surrey where son Harry lived later. He bought some properties in Ramsgate for £1,360 in 1871 but what happened to them is unknown. The income might have been intended to benefit employees or more distant relatives.
12 Salisbury Square at the turn of the century.
It had been rebuilt after the 1873 fire. Pictures of the interior of the new office, can be seen here
A delivery of newsprint
Fleetbank House is now on the site of Lloyd's
"old corner" and extends over the former forecourt
Plans for the house in Delahay Street
The Bow Bridge site. The printing rooms were to the left of this plan and the rest was given over to paper-making. The shaded strip represents the River Lea
12 Salisbury Square, to the south of Fleet Street, was Lloyd's main office from 1843 until his death. An established centre of publishing long before he moved there, it was a great deal more salubrious than his earlier addresses.
Samuel Richardson had lived in the house in the 18th century, at one time with Oliver Goldsmith as his assistant. (A watercolour of No 11 is in the London Metropolitan Archives. Richardson owned several houses in Salisbury Court, as it was then called, and Lloyd owned No 11 at some point, though not in 1843.)
This house clearly made Lloyd happy. He referred to it as "the old corner" and kept Richardson's lease close at hand to show visitors (Hatton). Richardson had demolished eight neighbouring houses and built warehouses and printing shops in their place (exactly where is not clear, except that they were obscured by other buildings at the north-western corner of the square).
Lloyd also printed at his office. This proved disastrous. On 29 December 1873, the presses caught fire. It was a Monday afternoon, but much that was irreplaceable went up in flames. "We looked down upon a monstrous black cavern." Little remained of 12 Salisbury Square, and the front had to be rebuilt. The replacement used a lot of concrete and all the doors were made of iron.
Offers of help flooded in from neighbours and competitors, leaving all at Lloyd's Weekly deeply touched. Fortunately, some of Lloyd’s printing operations had been moved to the Bow Bridge site, so the next issue of Lloyd's Weekly was not delayed.
Operations were moved to a "large establishment" nearby (location unknown). Lloyd already had interconnected premises in the neighbourhood stretching across Hanging Sword Alley to Whitefriars Street in the west and nearly to Fleet Street in the north.
His need for warehousing was substantial. The 6-monthly advertisement of all publications available for sale in 1846 (see p.15 of Helen Smith's paper) listed 27 romances being published in weekly penny numbers with some available in multi-part bindings, one songbook, one magazine, 29 full-length stories and 18 full-length cloth-bound books.
12 Salisbury Square was destroyed by an incendiary bomb in 1940. Few traces of the old square remain.
Lloyd built a grander office for the Daily Chronicle at 81 Fleet Street, now a modern block in multiple business occupation (72-78 Fleet Street is called “Chronicle House”).
This photograph dates from about 1902. It appears that the ground and first floors had been refashioned in the style of a department store by then. An earlier photograph shows windows of a more conventional design:
In 1882, Joseph Hatton wrote: “Opposite The Daily Telegraph offices in Fleet Street has lately sprung up a handsome range of buildings, bearing the sign of The Daily Chronicle. … [Lloyd's] new offices in Fleet Street cost him £40,000 [£4m] and he has just completed new printing-works in Whitefriars where the Hoe machines are fixed.”
However, the new building could not house the entire Chronicle operation. Writing in 1892, Henry Massingham referred to “a rather shapeless group of buildings, which straggles round the corner of Fleet Street and winds into Salisbury Court, where it joins on with the business offices of the firm of Lloyds”.
He confirmed the grandeur, however: its “palace-like hall” was used every afternoon as an informal labour exchange as advertisers and targets responded in person to the jobs advertised that day. Further on, he describes the “cool, lofty, well-lighted chamber, set round with marble pillars”.
Earlier work addresses
The following are listed by Price One Penny as Lloyd's publishing addresses:
44 Wych Street, Strand
44 Holywell Street, Strand
62 Broad Street, Bloomsbury
30 Curtain Road, Shoreditch
12 Salisbury Square, Fleet Street
Lloyd's presence at these addresses seems to have been fluid. Some may have been addresses of convenience, occupied by the newsagents who sold his publications.
Edward kept a shop at 44 Holywell Street until 1842. He and the family lived in the upstairs rooms for a time after his first insolvency in 1839. In 1851, Isabella was living in Hackney but her sister was living at No 42 with her husband of seven years' standing.
In 1840, Edward was living in Shoreditch as well as running much of his business from there. Shoreditch had been a Huguenot area with many textile and furniture workshops. These remained, but the housing had fallen into squalor by the 1830s. Curtain Road, running parallel with Shoreditch High Street to the west, took its name from the curtain wall of the neighbouring priory.
Shoreditch was a traditional centre for theatres and music-halls. In the 16th/17th centuries, "The Theatre" in Curtain Road was used by James Burbage for staging Shakespeare's plays – a location uncovered in 2012. After losing a dispute with the City of London over building a theatre there, Shakespeare and others moved to Southwark and built the Globe.
Broad, Holywell and Wych
The broad in Broad Street was accurate enough, but "Bloomsbury" was a euphemism. The street runs south of Bloomsbury proper in the parish of St Giles the Leper. The family was living in a room at No 62 in 1836 – a house where 19 people lived (anon). It may not have been quite a "rookery", the name given to the irredeemable slums of St Giles, but was clearly not far short of it.
Now St Giles High Street, Broad Street formed the west-bound loop of the one-way system from Holborn to Oxford Street until the present construction works reorganised the street map.
Both Holywell Street and Wych Street ran parallel with and north of the Strand. The three streets were a continuation of Fleet Street, appropriately enough.
Holywell ran from St Clement Danes to St Mary le Strand whereas Wych, the next street to the north, ran on towards Drury Lane. They followed the Elizabethan street pattern and were obliterated in the early 1900s to make way for Aldwych and Kingsway.
Holywell Street was a centre of Chartist and other radical publication. Some shops sold clothes. It was poor, shabby and over-crowded. The Holy Well still produces good clear water, but under a manhole cover in the basement of Australia House.
44 Wych Street was the address of William Dugdale, son of a dedicated Quaker family and prolific publisher of pornography (a vulgarity that not even Lloyd's detractors accuse him of). Dugdale published from that address for 40 years. He was arrested for obscenity at least five times and died in the Clerkenwell House of Correction.